Challenging the Monolingual Mindset

15 October 2014

While many of us only speak one language fluently, for others, multilingualism is a way of life. In their recent volume, Challenging the Monolingual Mindset, John Hajek and Yvette Slaughter examine the linguistic diversity in a range of several different communities around the world. Here, they discuss the background to the book and why multilingualism and other language issues are complex matters.

Challenging the Monolingual MindsetThe idea that having one and only one language is normal is a persistent but mistaken one, particularly in the English-speaking world. Also known as the monolingual mindset, its impact can be felt in many different ways. It discourages, for instance, L1 English second language learners, because English is too easily considered to be more than sufficient. And it is prone to making multilingualism less worthy, if not invisible, when having more than one language is the reality for most of the world’s population.

This volume is dedicated to the memory of Michael Clyne, sociolinguist of international stature, who worked tirelessly during his life to challenging the monolingual mindset in Australia and elsewhere. He did so through his research, teaching and public minded outreach. In this volume his former colleagues and students in Melbourne – where he lived his life – have come together to share their expertise across a wide range of topics – to highlight the importance of language issues in everyday life – whether it’s in Australia’s schools or military, in the shopping arcades of Stockholm or on the streets of Switzerland or Singapore.

When the Swedish crown prince Daniel said, on the birth of his daughter, ‘Mina känslor är lite are all over the place…..’ [My feelings are a little bit all over the place], we see that using two languages – Swedish and English as it turns out in Sweden – is completely normal. It’s an indication, as Catrin Norrby shows in her contribution to this volume that Prince Daniel is, despite his regal status, just an ordinary citizen of Sweden.

Language issues and multilingualism are complex matters – as this volume highlights as it casts its light on Australia, Asia and Europe – across a wide range of settings. To support multilingualism we need to describe it and understand it.

Readers will undoubtedly enjoy the volume – each chapter is a good read in itself and a useful piece in the puzzle of how to bring language-related issues in modern society to the fore.

Uniformity and Diversity in Language PolicyFor more information about the book please see our website. If you found this interesting, you might also like Uniformity and Diversity in Language Policy edited by Catrin Norrby and John Hajek.

 

 

 

 

 

 


Multilingualism in education is on the agenda

19 September 2014

Jean Conteh and Gabriela Meier’s book The Multilingual Turn in Languages Education is out this month. They have written this post about how the book came together and the importance of multilingual education. 

The Multilingual Turn in Languages EducationThe origins of this book emerged about 3 years ago in discussions about the different ways in which multilingualism was being talked about, not just in research, but in the lived experiences of people around the world. As editors, we both noticed that there was increasing interest in multilingualism in education – we refer to this new trend as the multilingual turn in languages education. We use languages in the plural to show that we are thinking about individuals’ whole language repertoires as resources for teaching and learning, not just the ‘target language’ of teaching.

A new era has started – Multilingual Matters setting the agenda

Our new book offers an invitation, including some guidelines and ideas, for teachers, researchers and policymakers to consider multilingualism in a new light as a key item on their agenda. The ideas underpinning the book began to be discussed around 20-30 years ago, when some authors started to recognise that monolingual language practices in schools can disadvantage many learners. During that period, Multilingual Matters was founded in 1976 and has since played an important role in influencing and shaping what people in their different spheres, including ourselves, talk about and what they deem important, i.e. what goes on the agenda.

The multilingual turn: ideology, theory, pedagogy

While the multilingual turn offers many opportunities, there are, of course, still many challenges before ideas can be put into practice in classrooms. As we and the authors in this book suggest, there are many positive ways in which this can happen. The opportunities and challenges are explored in the three parts of our book by taking into account the multiple layers of society, policy and classroom practice – all embedded in and informed by research.

First, in part one, we consider prevailing ideologies and language hierarchies, for instance about which languages have status and are therefore seen as useful, which languages are ignored and why and what the implications may be for individuals and groups. Then, through the chapters in part two, we argue the need for a theoretical basis for multilingual approaches to education. Finally, in part three, we show, through presenting different examples of innovative classroom practice, how educators in every situation need to find their own ways of taking account of their local circumstances and their learners’ resources.

Thanks to everyone

Gabriela visiting the office

Gabriela visiting the office

We are very grateful to Multilingual Matters, and Viv Edwards (see her recent blog post here) for supporting our book project. It was a pleasure working with you all! Furthermore, we were very lucky to find authors working across the world (Australia, Greek-Cyprus, Mauritius, China, France, Germany, USA, Switzerland, UK and Europe more generally) who embraced the idea of the multilingual turn. Their contributions present research from very varied teaching contexts and cover TESOL, EAL, SLA, MFL and two-way bilingual immersion. Thanks to you all, we were even able keep to our initial timetable!

Many thanks again to all at Multilingual Matters, all our authors and everyone who contributed to this book. We hope that through this book some ideas may make it from the agenda into practice.

For further information about this book please see our website.


New videos on bilingualism and parenting on our YouTube channel

13 May 2014
What should I do if my childteenager refuses to use one of hisher languages

One of Colin’s videos

To coincide with the publication of the 4th edition of A Parents’ and Teachers’ Guide to Bilingualism we asked the author, Colin Baker, to tell us a bit more about the book.

He has filmed 15 videos, which are now available to view on Multilingual Matters’ YouTube channel.  In some of the videos Colin answers questions which appear in the book, such as:

Others videos discuss the history of the book and Colin describes how the idea came about, how the 4th edition differs from previous editions and how his views have changed since the original publication.

All the videos are available as single files, each one lasting between 1 and 6 minutes, and the complete playlist can be found here.  Alternatively, a single film containing all the videos is available here.

A Parents’ and Teachers’ Guide to Bilingualism is available to buy from our website as both a print and ebook.


Celebrating 10 years of our Linguistic Diversity and Language Rights series

10 April 2014

In April 2004 we published the first book in our Linguistic Diversity and Language Rights book series. Medium or Message? by Anya Woods was the first title in the series which is edited by Tove Skutnabb-Kangas. The volume examined the relationship between language and religion within multicultural societies.

Ten years later we have ten books in the series, the most recent being Revitalising Indigenous Languages by Marja-Liisa Olthuis, Suvi Kivelä and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas. The book tells the story of the Indigenous Aanaar Saami language (around 350 speakers) and cultural revitalisation in Finland. Leanne Hinton, from the University of California at Berkeley, USA called the book “a must-read for all communities and their friends who are trying to revitalize their endangered languages.”

The series aims to promote and maintain linguistic diversity throughout the world and protect endangered minority languages. The books in the series can take a variety of approaches, drawing on sociolinguistics, education, sociology, economics, human rights law, political science, as well as anthropology, psychology, and applied language studies.

The series editor Tove Skutnabb-Kangas is a renowned scholar in the field of minority education and language rights. You can find more information about her and her work on her website.

The full list of books in the series is:
Medium or Message? by Anya Woods
Imagining Multilingual Schools edited by Ofelia García, Tove Skutnabb-Kangas and María E. Torres-Guzmán
Minority Languages and Cultural Diversity in Europe by Konstanze Glaser
Global Issues in Language, Education and Development by Naz Rassool
Regional Nationalism in Spain by Jaine E. Beswick
Language Allegiances and Bilingualism in the US edited by M. Rafael Salaberry
Social Justice through Multilingual Education edited by Tove Skutnabb-Kangas, Robert Phillipson, Ajit K. Mohanty and Minati Panda
Illegitimate Practices by Jacqueline Widin
English Language as Hydra edited by Vaughan Rapatahana and Pauline Bunce
Revitalising Indigenous Languages by Marja-Liisa Olthuis, Suvi Kivelä and Tove Skutnabb-Kangas

 

LDLR covers


Multilingual Universities in South Africa

8 April 2014

This month we are publishing Multilingual Universities in South Africa edited by Liesel Hibbert and Christa van der Walt. Here, one of Liesel’s colleagues, Carol Christie from the Department of Applied Language Studies, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa, gives us her view on the book as well as a bit of background on the complications of language and identity in South Africa.

Hibbert and Van der Walt have dedicated their book, to be released in April 2014, to Neville Alexander who believed that languages other than those of the original colonisers should be given power and status in South Africa and Africa more broadly. The reality that most of us who teach in South Africa experience, however, is one in which the Constitution provides for the equal status of eleven official languages but business and teaching is done in English (or, to a limited extent, Afrikaans). The parents of our students choose, when they can afford to do so, to send their children to English-medium schools, and most of our students tell us that they prefer to study in English because ‘it is the universal language’, ‘it will give me access to the job market’, ‘I have always studied in English’ or ‘Xhosa is just too difficult’.

Much has been written about the potential detriment to students of not being given the opportunity to develop literacies in their home language before being expected to study in a second or third language. However, those of us who teach in contemporary South Africa also know that terms such as ‘mother tongue’, ‘first language’ and ‘home language’ no longer mean the same thing (if they ever did) and cannot be used to allocate students to uncomplicated categories. A young person in South Africa may very easily have had a Xhosa-speaking mother but consider English to be her home language because it was the main language spoken in the home and Afrikaans to be a first language because she studied it at ‘first language’ level at school. And we all have students who consider themselves to be ethnically Xhosa (or Afrikaans or Venda or Zulu or Pedi etc.) while the primary language they use is English. We cannot return to apartheid-era ethnic and race categories which define us as having a particular ethnicity and therefore having to be taught a particular curriculum in a particular language.

The strength of the book is that it provides examples of how languages other than English can be used in university teaching in South Africa and can help students to learn even when the only language that all have in common is English. The book showcases current multilingual teaching and learning innovations in higher education in South Africa. Although language-in-education policies for multilingual contexts have been in place for some years, and have been discussed and critiqued, there is no overview which highlights the processes and success stories and the case studies conducted. This book fills this gap, by showcasing work done ‘on the ground’ by higher education practitioners and by examining how they develop ways of drawing on all available discourses and languages for strategic and systemically supported multilingual and biliteracy development in the formal tertiary education sector. The case studies presented by the next generation of up-and-coming mainstream academics are extremely valuable in terms of the blueprints they offer and in terms of the range of exemplary practices modelled. A very wide international audience is envisioned for this book, as similar contexts currently occur everywhere, due to global migration. In terms of the African continent, the book clearly testifies that the continent is inventing its own practices on an ongoing basis and that these are highly informative for language practitioners located anywhere.

The reality is that almost all of us are multilingual (or at least bilingual) and it is in this context that the editors’ use of the term ‘multilingual’ in the title must be considered. What is a multilingual university and are any universities in South Africa (as distinct from their teachers and students) truly multilingual? Hibbert is based at Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University in Port Elizabeth, where the management acknowledges Xhosa and Afrikaans, in addition to English, as the predominant languages in the area while almost all business and teaching is done in English and students will only submit work in Xhosa or Afrikaans in courses to do with these languages and their literatures. Van der Walt is based at the University of Stellenbosch, long considered the intellectual home of Afrikanerdom, where the taaldebat (language policy debate) continues and many staff, students and alumni continue to be anxious about it moving away from being an Afrikaans-medium university.

Bilingual education, at least in Afrikaans and English, has a long history in South Africa but the point is that it has only been done extensively in English and Afrikaans and not in the other South African languages. The status of Afrikaans was also an important aspect of Afrikaaner nationalism and it is arguably in this context that those in the taaldebat who bemoan a perceived move away from Afrikaans are campaigning for the rights of Afrikaans as a minority language. In contrast, however, most black South Africans, in spite of an often-asserted ethnic identity, do not appear to be asserting their right to be taught in ‘their own’ language. It is in this complicated context that Hibbert and Van der Walt present a number of case studies which describe and discuss attempts at and strategies for the use of multilingualism in university courses and classrooms in South Africa and this is a particular strength of the book: it provides examples of strategies that we can all consider using in our teaching.

Although, of course, being able to read and write in one or more languages does not necessarily make one critically literate. For instance, in the chapter titled “An exemplary astronomical lesson that could potentially show the benefits of multilingual content and language in higher education,” what is meant by an “astronomical lesson” (as opposed to an astronomy one) when it’s at home and surely if something “could” do something then it already has the potential to do so? This type of criticism from someone whose mother tongue, home language, first language and primary language of study have always been the same is, however, perhaps exactly what the authors and editors of this book are addressing: we gain much more from the use of a variety of languages and literacies (even if that use is nonstandard in semantics, syntax, register and idiom) than we stand to lose from the universal use of English. Multilingual Higher Education

For more information about this book please see our website. If you found this interesting you might also like Christa van der Walt’s previous book Multilingual Higher Education.


Double figures for MM Textbooks series!

18 March 2014

Key Topics in Second Language AcquisitionNext month we are publishing Key Topics in Second Language Acquisition by Vivian Cook and David Singleton. This text provides an introduction to the most important topics in SLA research. This book marks the 10th in the MM Textbooks series which began with its first book in 2008.

The textbook series aims to bring the topics of our monograph series to a student audience. Written by experts in the field, the books are supervised by a team of world-leading scholars and evaluated by instructors before publication. Each text is student-focused, with suggestions for further reading and study questions leading to a deeper understanding of the subject.

We started the series off in 2008 with Allyson Jule’s A Beginner’s Guide to Language and Gender which gave students a broad introduction to the study of language and gender.

Next came textbooks on bilingual first language acquisition, multilingualism and literacy, sociolinguistics and the law and teaching languages online.

Merrill Swain, Penny Kinnear and Linda Steinman wrote the 7th textbook in the series, Sociocultural Theory in Second Language Education. Neomy Storch of the University of Melbourne calls their book “a most welcome addition to the growing literature on sociocultural theory” and “an accessible and highly engaging” introduction to the topic of sociocultural theory.

Judit Kormos and Anne Margaret Smith’s book Teaching Languages to Students with Specific Learning Differences aims to provide useful advice for language teachers working with students with various kinds of learning difficulties.

Spanish Speakers in the USA by Janet M. Fuller examines the issues of language, culture and identity for Spanish speakers in the US.

MM Textbooks

Key Topics in Second Language Acquisition is due to be published in early April. This and all our textbooks are available as inspection/desk copies and can be ordered on our website: http://www.multilingual-matters.com/about_inspection.asp.

The full list of books in the series is:
A Beginner’s Guide to Language and Gender by Allyson Jule
Bilingual First Language Acquisition by Annick De Houwer
Learning to be Literate by Viv Edwards
An Introduction to Bilingual Development by Annick De Houwer
Sociolinguistics and the Legal Process by Diana Eades
Teaching Languages Online by Carla Meskill and Natasha Anthony
Sociocultural Theory in Second Language Education by Merill Swain, Penny Kinnear and Linda Steinman
Teaching Languages to Students with Specific Learning Differences by Judit Kormos and Anne Margaret Smith
Spanish Speakers in the USA by Janet M. Fuller
Key Topics in Second Language Acquisition by Vivian Cook and David Singleton

If you are currently teaching a course and do not have an adequate textbook, please let us know at info@multilingual-matters.com and we will do our best to fill the gap.


New app to encourage multilingualism

25 February 2014

MM author Kelleen Toohey, along with her colleagues, have developed ScribJab to encourage multilingualism among 9-13 year- olds. Here, Kelleen tells us a bit more detail about the project.

ScribJab (www.scribjab.com) is a website and free iPad application that tries to encourage multilingualism and appreciation for multilingual resources in Canada and throughout the world. ScribJab allows writers to write, illustrate, narrate and publish stories in at least two languages. It also provides space for authors to comment on other people’s stories. Developed initially for 9-13 year old children, the site and app are seeing the creation of stories by older and younger authors. While ScribJab does not correct or edit authors’ stories (wishing to encourage writers at all stages of proficiency), a teacher moderates the site for appropriateness. Authors can contribute stories individually or there are provisions for teachers to enrol classes.

Like most educational researchers today, we believe that children learn second languages faster and better if they have a strong foundation in their first language. We also believe that valuing languages is important for the development of children who grow up in multilingual homes, whether they know their heritage languages or not.

Children who are not multilingual are encouraged to contribute to the site as well, if they can find some help in translating their stories into other languages. Developing positive attitudes to multilingualism is important for all citizens, and through this website and app, we hope to provide a positive experience for all.

The first books on the website were developed by a group of 9 and 10-year old children whose teacher asked them to write books for younger children which might be read (in their first languages) by grandparents visiting their school for “noisy reading” time. Children gathered the stories from their grandparents, stories about when the grandparents were children. The stories differ in length, complexity and accuracy. We see this as entirely appropriate, and children discussed the fact that some books might be appropriate for younger children and their grandparents and others suitable for older children. These books are published on the site as “hand drawn samples”.

We hope that writers and readers internationally will find ScribJab a helpful resource, and that it fosters an appreciation for multilingualism and promotes discussions about multilingualism.

For further information about ScribJab please see the website www.scribjab.com or contact Kelleen Toohey at toohey@sfu.ca


The Bilingual Bookshop

13 November 2013

This month sees the opening of The Bilingual Bookshop, www.thebilingualbookshop.com. Cheryl Sánchez, Founder, describes the idea behind the enterprise, and how The Bilingual Bookshop is helping families across the UK.

Bilingual bookshop-logoBeing a teacher in a multilingual school and mummy to my gorgeous 2 year old daughter, who we are raising bilingually with English and Spanish, I have always been so disappointed with the lack of good quality foreign-language materials here in the UK to use with my classes and my family.

Until now, our summer trips to Spain have followed the ritual familiar to many bilingual families: spending hours traipsing round various book- and toy shops in the pursuit of foreign-language products for our children, to take back with us for the coming year. For those of us that do not travel ‘home’ regularly, we try to predict the interests and abilities of our children for the whole year ahead and then stuff our already overweight suitcases with as many books/CDs etc. as we can carry. And worst of all, if we don’t make it to the shops because we value the time spent with family and friends (after all, spending time with native speakers is the best way to encourage our child’s language development), we may settle for any old rubbish we can find in the local supermarket as long as it presents the target language in some way!

Let’s be clear here: I am not looking for resources for teaching languages such as flashcards and textbooks, nor am I looking to buy ‘whatever I can get my hands on’ – I am looking for authentic, good-quality products from well-established, reputable publishers and manufacturers in the country in question, so that my child has the same access to these materials as if she were living there.

Now, of course it is possible to gain access to these materials in certain circumstances: internet shopping is possible, but often requires an address in the foreign country and maybe even a credit card registered in that country. Even if the products are available to UK customers, the delivery times are often long and frustrating, and they do not meet the needs of a bilingual family as they are presented with no guidance on how to use them with a bilingual child.

A Parents' and Teachers' Guide to BilingualismThen there is the question of the use of readily-available dual-language books – those where both languages appear on the same page. Colin Baker, author of the successful Multilingual Matters publication A Parents’ and Teachers’ Guide to Bilingualism, states that ‘Dual language books are not without controversy. First, children usually only read the story in one language in the book, and may ignore the other language. Having understood the story in one language, it may be tiresome to read the story in another language. The child ends up reading half the book rather than the whole book. Second, the presence of a majority language such as English tends to remove the desire to read in a minority language.’ As a professional in education, I echo this view, and am completely convinced that children need authentic materials from the foreign country: they represent that country’s literary culture, customs and traditions, and provide a complete immersion which is absolutely necessary if a child is to become truly bilingual. Translations often fail to capture the essence of a story or an idea and this is at the very heart of what we are encouraging when reading with our children.

I set up The Bilingual Bookshop to put an end to the crazy summer book-searching ritual. Working with excellent, well-known publishers and manufacturers across Europe, and using our years of experience in education, learning and language-development, we have selected a wide range of products to suit the specific needs and interests of bilingual children aged 0-12 years. We offer the staples of every native speaker’s bookshelf: atlases, picture dictionaries and information and activity books, which are particularly useful as they contain short, easily accessible snippets of language. We complement these products with a wide range of fiction titles for independent reading or, as is often the case with bilingual learners, for sharing with parents.

Bilingual bookshop-booksDespite the fact that we now offer these products in the UK, it remains a hard task for one to gauge which books will suit YOUR bilingual child. At The Bilingual Bookshop, we have responded to this by featuring guidance alongside our products to support parents in choosing appropriate materials, and our community pages feature a whole host of articles, tips and advice on raising bilingual children. Our inspirational family profiles provide an insight into the huge diversity in approaches to raising bilingual children, and our forums offer a means to ask questions and share experiences with others on the same journey.

To fill one’s home with language, and create a real bilingual home environment, is in my view one of the best ways to develop a bilingual family. Come over to The Bilingual Bookshop to see how we can support you in your family’s bilingual adventures – we’re sure you won’t be disappointed!

The Bilingual Bookshop (www.thebilingualbookshop.com) is open now!


Introducing our new book series ‘Language, Mobility and Institutions’

11 November 2013

To tie in with the publication of the first books in our new series, the series editors Melissa Moyer (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) and Celia Roberts (King’s College  London) have written this post presenting the series.

We are very happy to introduce this new series on ‘Language, Mobility and Institutions’. The theme of this series and the manuscripts we seek to publish address a new sociolinguistic reality brought about by globalization. This worldwide social process challenges researchers dealing with language to adopt innovative perspectives in order to provide an improved understanding of how language is implicated in the various institutions of society. ‘Institutions’ in the title of the series is not just limited to established social, administrative, political or economic entities in the public, private or non-governmental sector but also to sites and contexts where institutionalized practices are produced and reproduced in the daily undertakings of people who move around the world.

Communicative Practices at Work

The first books in the new series are being published this autumn. We hope these will be the first of many which aim to link the experience of being mobile with the institutional responses to increasing diversity. Institutions, understood in a wide sense, are grappling with the conundrum of national or institutional ideologies which assume standardization or homogenous ways of thinking in situations of superdiversity. Meanwhile, migrants see their social and cultural capital leeching away or look for ways to resist and develop alternative strategies to gain agency and cope with inequality and social exclusion.

Sitting on the train in any major city in the world, it is commonplace to hear five or six different languages in a carriage. In everyday life multilingualism is a banal event. But how does this play out in institutions? Much of the time, it is swept under the carpet as a largely unrecognised and rarely remunerated workforce of multilingual people is expected to act as interpreters and translators. At the same time, linguistic gatekeepers are at work in selection panels, designing an oh-so-narrow gate for the few to pass through.

The present series seeks to bring forth the innovative ways people are pushing at these very gates which are being safeguarded by powerful institutions and how they are finding creative ways of contesting exclusionary practices by setting up their own businesses. Similarly, some organisations are championing communicative flexibility within their own workforces.

Language, Migration and Social Inequalities

And this is one of the themes of Jo Anne Kleifgen’s book which was published last week. Communicative Practices at Work is an ethnographic and sociolinguistic account of how one US firm is drawing on the multilingual and multimodal resources of its staff. In November Language, Migration and Social Inequalities edited by Alexandre Duchêne, Melissa Moyer and Celia Roberts takes a critical look at sites of control, selection and resistance across settings in Europe, Africa and Australia.

Both these books draw the reader into research sites quite far removed from the majority of books on sociolinguistics which tend to focus on language rights, education or local communities. With this new series, workplace settings such as high-tech factories, the marketplaces of South Africa or the world of the airline stewardess are explored. Similarly, light is shed on the backstage work of institutions where language use is negotiated as migrants’ lives are made bureaucratically processable.

We are finding the editorship of this series a pretty exciting experience since any one aspect of language, mobility and institutions is nested in wider contexts, discourses and interactions. Local and national politics, the forces of the neo-liberal economy, the multiple networks of migrant groups and the contact they maintain with their countries of origin and transit are all part of the tangled web which has language as its centre.

We welcome manuscripts or book projects that presents research that would contribute to the widely defined themes of the present series. If you think you have a proposal to make then do get in touch with Anna Roderick at Multilingual Matters and we will get back to you soon.

Celia and Melissa


The Assessment of Bilinguals

3 September 2013

Issues in the Assessment of BilingualsThis month we are publishing Issues in the Assessment of Bilinguals and Solutions for the Assessment of Bilinguals by Virginia C. Mueller Gathercole. Here, her former colleague Colin Baker writes about why the books are so important to the field.

Ginny Gathercole has the well earned reputation as an outstanding researcher on language. Meticulous as a top academic, she has gained considerable applause on both side of the Atlantic for innovative and creative research and writing that pushes forward boundaries by a large leap rather than a short jump. As editor of these two books, she has gathered an outstanding set of chapters, meticulously compiled, and created two books that will transform our understanding of the assessment of bilinguals and multilinguals.

Solutions for the Assessment of BilingualsThese books on assessment are sorely needed. There is a dearth of authoritative books on the assessment of bilinguals and multilinguals, and the two books uniquely help fill the enormous gap in our knowledge.  This topic is complex as it includes children and adults with different cognitive, academic and socio-economic profiles. Yet the books cover such complexity and variety by both raising the issues, and then suggesting solutions.

These two books are likely to become classics in the understanding of assessment in bilinguals and multilinguals. Every library should buy a copy of both books, as they will stand the test of time, place and importance.

Both books are available on our website with a special discount of 30%. Click here to find out all the details.


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