This month we have published Profiles of Dual Language Education in the 21st Century edited by M. Beatriz Arias and Molly Fee. In this post, Beatriz explains the educational backdrop to the collection and explains the goals of its chapters.
“English Learners (ELs) and native English speakers (NES) gain access to key 21st century skills – bilingualism, biliteracy, and global awareness – through participation in dual language education programs.”(Lindholm-Leary and Genesee 2014)
The first Program in the US began fifty-five years ago, with Coral Way Elementary school in Dade County Florida. We have learned much about how to implement effective programs since 1963. In this volume we present the lessons learned across a variety of contexts.
Dual Language Programs, programs which use two languages for instruction, with the goal that students become bilingual, biliterate and culturally competent, are growing in popularity across the country. While it is difficult to estimate the exact number of programs, in the last twenty years, their number has grown from 260 to over 2500. A recent report indicated that 39 states and Washington, D.C. were offering dual-language education during the 2012-13 school year, with Spanish and Chinese programs cited as the most commonly used languages (DOE 2015).
Initially, dual language programs focused on instruction in the elementary school years, K through 6th grade. Success has been found to extend to those students who participate for at least 5-6 years in a program (Valentino & Reardon 2015). With the increase success rate of elementary students, the model has now extended to Pre-K and K settings as well as middle and high school classes. While it is not clear if the language allocation model used in elementary schools (usually 50% English and 50% partner language), is appropriate for early childhood settings, or middle and high schools, the dual language instructional model now spans from Pre-K to high school. Today it is possible for a student to enroll in a Dual Language program in Kindergarten and develop their bilingualism through high school culminating in a Seal of Biliteracy upon graduation. The Seal of Biliteracy is currently offered by 36 states and documents that students have mastered bilingualism and biliteracy in two languages.
What does it take to have a successful program? As an evaluator of dual language programs, I have had an opportunity to see first-hand the critical factors that comprise effective programs. The articles in this volume speak to specific components that are essential to program implementation: program planning, teacher preparation, community participation, professional development, and leadership. The interaction of these factors is reported in case studies of legacy programs and in the implementation of district-wide dual language programs. Community contexts matter and vary greatly between programs as well. This volume distills what we have learned in the last twenty years, from the research and implementation of dual language programs in the US.
Beatriz Arias Ph.D.
Center for Applied Linguistics
Lindholm-Leary, K. J., & Genesee, F. (2014). Student outcomes in one-way, two-way, and indigenous language immersion education. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 2(2), 165–180.
U.S. Department of Education, Office of English Language Acquisition, Dual Language Education Programs: Current State Policies and Practices, Washington, D.C., 2015.
Valentino, R. A., & Reardon, S. F. (2015). Effectiveness of four instructional programs designed to serve English learners: Variation by ethnicity and initial English proficiency. Retrieved from http://cepa.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/Valentino_Reardon_EL Programs_14_0326_2.pdf