Decentralising Translation Studies

17 May 2016

In April we published New Insights into Arabic Translation and Interpreting edited by Mustapha Taibi. This book examines the key issues surrounding translation from or into Arabic. In this post, Mustapha introduces the key themes of his book and reveals how it fills a gap in the Eurocentric field of translation studies.

A number of Translation Studies scholars (e.g. Gentzler, Tymoczko, Trivedi and Cheung) have pointed out the relativism surrounding the concept of ‘translation’. The different terms used in different languages to refer to this activity may yield different understandings, connotations and approaches. This implies that Translation Studies would not be what it is (or what it has been until recently) if it had been decentralised earlier and different local perspectives had been considered. As Maria Tymoczko suggests in Enlarging Translation, Empowering Translators, “There is a need in translation studies for more flexible and deeper understanding of translation, and the thinking of non-Western peoples about this central human activity is essential in achieving broader and more durable theories about translation.”

New Insights into Arabic Translation and InterpretingAs a student, and later as a lecturer, in interpreting and translation, it didn’t take me much effort to note that the textbooks and references in use are almost exclusively by European or North American authors. Some languages and cultures have been predominantly on the ‘consumption’ side of theories and research in these fields. The Arab World and Arabic are a case in point. In his introduction to my new book New Insights into Arabic Translation and Interpreting, Emeritus Prof. Stuart Campbell writes:

“Despite the increasing surge of scholarship on translation since the seventies, European and North American voices have dominated the field and largely shaped it. With a few notable exceptions such as Mona Baker and Basil Hatim, it is only in the last decade that Arab scholars have begun to add their voices in substantial numbers; on the whole, Arab scholarship has been a “consumer” rather than a “producer” of new ideas in translation research”.

As a result of a shortage of Translation Studies works in and on Arabic, Arab translation and interpreting scholars, teachers and students often need to use references that were developed based on languages and socio-cultural contexts other than Arabic and the Arab culture.

New Insights into Arabic Translation and Interpreting is a new contribution which bridges this gap. It offers translation students, teachers, researchers and practitioners a collection of articles by established as well as young researchers from different parts of the world (Morocco, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Australia and Spain), addressing translation in the Arab World, translating from and into Arabic, and teaching translation from and into Arabic, with a special focus on new fields of study and professional practice, new lines of research and innovative teaching approaches and resources.

At the same time, the book is a new contribution which decentralises Translation Studies, in the sense of offering ‘local’ perspectives on translation and interpreting. Although European and North American scholars are abundantly cited in its chapters, the book looks at translation and interpreting from the angle of sociolinguistic and socio-cultural contexts that are quite different from the Western situations that have dominated the Translation Studies scene so far.

As an example, community interpreting and community translation have been associated in the literature with migrant communities in Europe and North America. The publications available usually refer to ‘non-English/French/Spanish speakers’, ‘speakers of minority languages’, ‘culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) users’ and so on. ‘Periphery’ languages such as Arabic, Swahili, Wolof, Chinese and others are categorised as ‘minority’ languages or as the languages of disempowered migrants and refugees. Some chapters in this book reverse the picture by bringing to the scene public service situations where Arabic is the mainstream language and other languages, including European ones, are ‘public service user’ languages. Chapter 3 in particular takes community translation and interpreting to a territory which is thus far unfamiliar: language services during the annual pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia.

Another example is the chapter by Said Faiq: the author notes an imbalance in the translation-mediated flow between Arab and Western cultures and questions the “master discourse”, which affects translation from and into Arabic at different levels. He concludes with a call for translation that facilitates and promotes intercultural understanding. (This should be the role of translation by definition, but that is not always the case): “A critical understanding of the ways in which master discourses operate might contribute to more efficient self-monitoring on the part of all involved in translation, and might lead to making it a true process of intercultural understanding rather than a way of reinforcing existing representations and images of one culture about another.  This can be achieved through a cross-cultural appraisal of the discourses underlying translation and translating with a view to better understanding the issues of identity (self and other), translation enterprise (patronage, agencies, translators) and norms of representation (master discourse)”.

1853597430For further information about the book please see our website. If you found this interesting, you might also like another of our titles: Cultural Encounters in Translation from Arabic edited by Said Faiq.

 


New series: Translation, Interpreting and Social Justice in a Globalised World

19 February 2016

We are very happy to introduce this new book series on Translation, Interpreting and Social Justice in a Globalised World edited by Philipp Angermeyer and Katrijn Maryns. In this post, the series editors introduce their series and explain what topics it will cover.

Series flyer

Series flyer – Click to enlarge

In our era of globalisation and migration, translation and interpreting are ubiquitous phenomena wherever speakers of different languages come into contact, and are inextricably linked to questions of social power and inequality. In contexts as varied as courts, schools, hospitals and workplaces, or in interactions with police or refugee services, translators and interpreters variously take on roles as institutional gatekeepers, intercultural mediators, or advocates for members of marginalised communities, with evident implications for the encounters and the participants whose communication is thus mediated.

This international series welcomes authored monographs and edited collections that address translation and interpreting in settings of diversity, globalisation, migration and asylum. Books in the series will discuss how translation and interpreting practices (or their absence) may advance or hinder social justice. A key aim of the series is to encourage dialogue between scholars and professionals working in translation and interpreting studies and those working in sociolinguistics, linguistic anthropology, or other fields related to linguistics.

Books in the series will cover both translation and interpreting services provided by state and corporate entities, as well as informal, community-based translation and interpreting. We welcome proposals covering any combination of languages (including Sign languages) and from a wide variety of geographical contexts. A guiding aim of the series is to empower those who may be disadvantaged by their lack of access to majority or official languages. Proposals which bridge the gap between theoretical and practical domains are particularly encouraged.

Topics which may be addressed by books in the series include (but are not limited to):

  • Translation and language rights
  • Access to democracy and citizenship
  • Asylum and migration procedures
  • The media and minority-language broadcasting and publishing
  • Educational settings (including community-based education)
  • Medical settings (including care settings and provision of public health information)
  • Legal settings (law enforcement, court, prison, counselling)
  • Cultural translation
  • Interactions with business and private-sector institutions
  • Translation and intercultural relations and conflict
  • Ethical and political considerations in translation

We welcome proposals on research that contributes to these themes. Proposals should be sent to Laura Longworth, Commissioning Editor. For more information about the new series please see our website or download a flyer for the series here.


New edition of Interpretation by James Nolan

10 October 2012

With the second edition of Interpretation: Techniques and Exercises published this week, we asked the book’s author James Nolan to tell us a little about the different places where the book is used and what new material is included in the new edition.

Glendon College, Toronto

The first edition of Interpretation: Techniques and Exercises has been adopted by many interpreter training programs offered by institutions, universities and interpreters’ associations, including seminars and workshops for conference interpreters, court interpreters, military interpreters and community interpreters. Recently, the book gained recognition as one of the main authoritative works in the field by being cited in an amicus brief before the United States Supreme Court: http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/publications/supreme_court_preview/briefs/10-1472_petitioner_amcu_professors.authcheckdam.pdf

Multicultural Community Services, Washington D.C.

Using the book’s syllabus and exercises in a series of professional-level training events has provided me with fertile ground for creating innovative teaching scenarios. Last year, in a seminar at the University of the Witwatersrand, we were able to develop video-based interpreting exercises and role-plays using several languages, including sign language. This year, at a training course in Washington D.C., I used the book for the first time in a seminar for community interpreters grouping several different language combinations, adapting the exercises to their needs.

University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg

In the second edition I have made several improvements and brought the book up to date. First, I incorporated a number of suggestions I had gleaned from readers, students and book reviewers that I felt would make the book more useful. I edited a number of exercises to make them useable with additional language combinations, and included a section of additional exercises to help develop short-term memory and to practice reformulation strategies. Last but not least, I included in the bibliography a section of internet links providing quick access to audio or video speeches for listening and interpretation practice. This last feature will make the book better suited for use with the distance-learning interpretation courses that have recently been making their appearance, and may contribute to making those courses more effective. I will be teaching one such course myself this fall for Glendon College and I hope the experience will suggest further improvements that can be made to the book.


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