Public Policy Development in Translation and Interpreting Studies

16 June 2017

We recently published the first book in our new series Translation, Interpreting and Social Justice in a Globalised World, entitled Ideology, Ethics and Policy Development in Public Service Interpreting and Translation edited by Carmen Valero-Garcés and Rebecca Tipton. In this post the editors introduce us to the main themes of the book.

As the 21st century advances, Public Service Interpreting and Translation (PSIT) services are increasingly positioned at the service of conflict resolution in different contexts, while at the same time being locked in their own struggle for professional recognition. This edited volume builds on our experiences as educators, researchers and practitioners as well as on the FITISPos Conference series in Public Service Interpreting and Translation held at the University of Alcalá, Madrid, and in particular the 2014 Conference which revisited topics related to ethics and ideology in situations of conflict.

The collection illuminates emerging challenges for PSIT in statutory and non-statutory services generated by violent conflict, population displacement and migration, inter alia, gender-based violence, human rights violations and mental health trauma. These challenges raise questions as to the nature of the ethical and ideological frameworks within which interpreters and translators operate, the extent to which they shape such frameworks, and the role of states and institutions in acknowledging and responding to human need and human rights, against a backdrop of shifting political, social and legal landscapes.

The chapters explore the evolving nature of ethics and ideology in a range of settings, and their implications for PSIT service organization, perception and delivery. They make a timely contribution to discussions on public policy development in translation and interpreting studies (see also González Núñez and Meylaerts (eds) 2017).

The volume promotes research involving inter-disciplinary and inter-institutional approaches in order to appeal to communities of public service interpreting and translation, communities of research and practice, intercultural communication services and key stakeholders in policy development. The intended readership is therefore broader than the constituency of PSIT alone and extends to anyone interested in multicultural societies.

The volume is divided into two parts; the first, titled ‘(Re-)defining Concepts and Policy Contexts’ provides historical and contemporary perspectives on ideology in the development of interpreting at the service of state bodies and institutions. The chapters explore ideologies of recruitment, positioning, discourses of professionalization, PSIT and the democratic process, and the ethics and politics of recognition. The chapters are underpinned by theoretical frameworks that highlight political science as an increasingly important inter-discipline.

Part 2 titled ‘Experiences From the Field’ brings together contributions on interpreting in settings such as courtrooms, correctional facilities and in the pre-trial phases of criminal investigation. It focuses on interpreter mediation with asylum seekers, refugees and trauma survivors, drawing on case studies and survey-based studies. Ethical and ideological perspectives are foregrounded through a spotlight on issues of access to justice in correctional facilities and rehabilitation for limited proficiency speakers. Interlingual communication is theorized in particular through rights-based discourses.  The chapters offer new insight into different types of legal events in the European context and bring a fresh perspective on the use and training of interpreters in Europe and the United States.

We hope that the volume opens up useful discussion between educators, interpreting practitioners and key public service and community stakeholders with a view to developing coherent policy approaches to PSIT across domains and settings.

References:

González Núñez Gabriel and Reine Meylaerts (eds) (2017) Translation and Public Policy: Interdisciplinary perspectives and case studies, London and New York: Routledge.

For more information about this book, please see our website


How can we overcome language barriers in health care?

25 April 2017

This month we published Providing Health Care in the Context of Language Barriers edited by Elizabeth A. Jacobs and Lisa C. Diamond. In this post the editors tell us about the inspiration behind the book and what we can expect from reading it.

Have you ever had to seek health care in a country where you did not speak the language? Have you ever thought about what the experiences of the patient, care provider and, if present, interpreter are?

As immigration continues and grows across the globe, this has become a frequent experience for patients around the world. Many patients and their health care providers have to communicate across a language barrier, often in collaboration with an interpreter, formal or informal. In this situation, patients’ needs may not be understood or met because of lack of adequate communication. The nature and complexity of language barriers in health care vary within and across nations due to the culture and political nature of the nation and/or the linguistic groups seeking health care in those countries. With this diversity of contexts comes a need for diverse approaches to overcoming language barriers in health care. The goal of our book is to provide a collection of chapters describing these different approaches, their advantages and disadvantages, and special issues which need to be considered in particular contexts or linguistic groups.

This edited volume provides an excellent overview of the global challenge health care providers and linguistically diverse patients face when they seek health care in settings where it is delivered in a language other than their own. The contributing authors provide a diverse set of insights into these challenges and means for overcoming them and highlight how the likely best solutions to the problem of language barriers in health care vary depending on where you are in the world, what means of overcoming them are available, how policy shapes or does not shape these solutions, and the culture, language, and language abilities of the patients being served. They also provide a number of practical ideas and recommendations as to how to address these challenges, from how to work effectively with informal interpreters to developing a means for measuring physician language proficiency. These recommendations sometimes conflict, indicating that, while the challenge is consistent and global, the means for addressing language barriers in health care settings are varied and context-dependent.

We hope you find valuable evidence for the diversity of linguistic needs in the health care setting around the world in this book and that it serves you as an important resource for understanding this increasing global challenge, the different means for addressing it, and issues that must be addressed when developing solutions.

Patients worldwide deserve to be heard and understood and we hope this work helps make this happen.

For more information about this book, please visit our website. If you found this interesting, you might also like Medical Discourse in Professional, Academic and Popular Settings edited by Pilar Ordóñez-López and Nuria Edo-Marzá and Ideology, Ethics and Policy Development in Public Service Interpreting and Translation edited by Carmen Valero-Garcés and Rebecca Tipton.


Decentralising Translation Studies

17 May 2016

In April we published New Insights into Arabic Translation and Interpreting edited by Mustapha Taibi. This book examines the key issues surrounding translation from or into Arabic. In this post, Mustapha introduces the key themes of his book and reveals how it fills a gap in the Eurocentric field of translation studies.

A number of Translation Studies scholars (e.g. Gentzler, Tymoczko, Trivedi and Cheung) have pointed out the relativism surrounding the concept of ‘translation’. The different terms used in different languages to refer to this activity may yield different understandings, connotations and approaches. This implies that Translation Studies would not be what it is (or what it has been until recently) if it had been decentralised earlier and different local perspectives had been considered. As Maria Tymoczko suggests in Enlarging Translation, Empowering Translators, “There is a need in translation studies for more flexible and deeper understanding of translation, and the thinking of non-Western peoples about this central human activity is essential in achieving broader and more durable theories about translation.”

New Insights into Arabic Translation and InterpretingAs a student, and later as a lecturer, in interpreting and translation, it didn’t take me much effort to note that the textbooks and references in use are almost exclusively by European or North American authors. Some languages and cultures have been predominantly on the ‘consumption’ side of theories and research in these fields. The Arab World and Arabic are a case in point. In his introduction to my new book New Insights into Arabic Translation and Interpreting, Emeritus Prof. Stuart Campbell writes:

“Despite the increasing surge of scholarship on translation since the seventies, European and North American voices have dominated the field and largely shaped it. With a few notable exceptions such as Mona Baker and Basil Hatim, it is only in the last decade that Arab scholars have begun to add their voices in substantial numbers; on the whole, Arab scholarship has been a “consumer” rather than a “producer” of new ideas in translation research”.

As a result of a shortage of Translation Studies works in and on Arabic, Arab translation and interpreting scholars, teachers and students often need to use references that were developed based on languages and socio-cultural contexts other than Arabic and the Arab culture.

New Insights into Arabic Translation and Interpreting is a new contribution which bridges this gap. It offers translation students, teachers, researchers and practitioners a collection of articles by established as well as young researchers from different parts of the world (Morocco, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Australia and Spain), addressing translation in the Arab World, translating from and into Arabic, and teaching translation from and into Arabic, with a special focus on new fields of study and professional practice, new lines of research and innovative teaching approaches and resources.

At the same time, the book is a new contribution which decentralises Translation Studies, in the sense of offering ‘local’ perspectives on translation and interpreting. Although European and North American scholars are abundantly cited in its chapters, the book looks at translation and interpreting from the angle of sociolinguistic and socio-cultural contexts that are quite different from the Western situations that have dominated the Translation Studies scene so far.

As an example, community interpreting and community translation have been associated in the literature with migrant communities in Europe and North America. The publications available usually refer to ‘non-English/French/Spanish speakers’, ‘speakers of minority languages’, ‘culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) users’ and so on. ‘Periphery’ languages such as Arabic, Swahili, Wolof, Chinese and others are categorised as ‘minority’ languages or as the languages of disempowered migrants and refugees. Some chapters in this book reverse the picture by bringing to the scene public service situations where Arabic is the mainstream language and other languages, including European ones, are ‘public service user’ languages. Chapter 3 in particular takes community translation and interpreting to a territory which is thus far unfamiliar: language services during the annual pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia.

Another example is the chapter by Said Faiq: the author notes an imbalance in the translation-mediated flow between Arab and Western cultures and questions the “master discourse”, which affects translation from and into Arabic at different levels. He concludes with a call for translation that facilitates and promotes intercultural understanding. (This should be the role of translation by definition, but that is not always the case): “A critical understanding of the ways in which master discourses operate might contribute to more efficient self-monitoring on the part of all involved in translation, and might lead to making it a true process of intercultural understanding rather than a way of reinforcing existing representations and images of one culture about another.  This can be achieved through a cross-cultural appraisal of the discourses underlying translation and translating with a view to better understanding the issues of identity (self and other), translation enterprise (patronage, agencies, translators) and norms of representation (master discourse)”.

1853597430For further information about the book please see our website. If you found this interesting, you might also like another of our titles: Cultural Encounters in Translation from Arabic edited by Said Faiq.

 


New series: Translation, Interpreting and Social Justice in a Globalised World

19 February 2016

We are very happy to introduce this new book series on Translation, Interpreting and Social Justice in a Globalised World edited by Philipp Angermeyer and Katrijn Maryns. In this post, the series editors introduce their series and explain what topics it will cover.

Series flyer

Series flyer – Click to enlarge

In our era of globalisation and migration, translation and interpreting are ubiquitous phenomena wherever speakers of different languages come into contact, and are inextricably linked to questions of social power and inequality. In contexts as varied as courts, schools, hospitals and workplaces, or in interactions with police or refugee services, translators and interpreters variously take on roles as institutional gatekeepers, intercultural mediators, or advocates for members of marginalised communities, with evident implications for the encounters and the participants whose communication is thus mediated.

This international series welcomes authored monographs and edited collections that address translation and interpreting in settings of diversity, globalisation, migration and asylum. Books in the series will discuss how translation and interpreting practices (or their absence) may advance or hinder social justice. A key aim of the series is to encourage dialogue between scholars and professionals working in translation and interpreting studies and those working in sociolinguistics, linguistic anthropology, or other fields related to linguistics.

Books in the series will cover both translation and interpreting services provided by state and corporate entities, as well as informal, community-based translation and interpreting. We welcome proposals covering any combination of languages (including Sign languages) and from a wide variety of geographical contexts. A guiding aim of the series is to empower those who may be disadvantaged by their lack of access to majority or official languages. Proposals which bridge the gap between theoretical and practical domains are particularly encouraged.

Topics which may be addressed by books in the series include (but are not limited to):

  • Translation and language rights
  • Access to democracy and citizenship
  • Asylum and migration procedures
  • The media and minority-language broadcasting and publishing
  • Educational settings (including community-based education)
  • Medical settings (including care settings and provision of public health information)
  • Legal settings (law enforcement, court, prison, counselling)
  • Cultural translation
  • Interactions with business and private-sector institutions
  • Translation and intercultural relations and conflict
  • Ethical and political considerations in translation

We welcome proposals on research that contributes to these themes. Proposals should be sent to Laura Longworth, Commissioning Editor. For more information about the new series please see our website or download a flyer for the series here.


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