A Fresh Look at an Old Question: The Age Factor in a New Methodological Light

20 April 2017

This month we’re publishing Beyond Age Effects in Instructional L2 Learning by Simone E. Pfenninger and David Singleton. In this post Simone and David discuss the controversial topic of the age factor in second language learning, as explored in their book.

Both of us – from the beginning of our respective careers – have been fascinated by the question of the age factor in second language learning. As we all know, this is a controversial topic; for example, the debate surrounding the Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) has not gone away and is not likely to any time soon. There is, however, more consensus than many people realize between CPH sceptics (like Carmen Muñoz) and CPH advocates (such as Robert DeKeyser). The area in which this happy consensus reigns is that of the effects of an early start to L2 instruction in school, which most SLA researchers of all affiliations have for many decades agreed does not yield the advantage one might expect.

There is a sharp difference between the CPH debate and the discussion concerning the optimal age in a formal, educational context. Whereas the CPH question is interesting theoretically, the issue of the best age for starting a foreign language in school (to which, for various reasons, most CPH supporters these days see the critical period notion as irrelevant) is not just intellectually teasing but is also heavy with practical, socio-economic, political and ideological implications. Clearly, for educators, teachers and policy-makers it is of compelling interest to know more about the end state of foreign language instruction, since such research has important implications for multilingual education when making decisions about (1) early teaching of different languages in elementary school and (2) later instruction in different languages in secondary school.

Our book reports on some further long-term findings to this effect, which we explore and expatiate on in relation to a range of variables which, in the instructional context, turn out to be markedly more influential than age. We talk about recent developments and improvements in the methodological aspects of investigating individual difference variables such as age, as well as our observation that in the formal educational setting the age variable is overshadowed to the point of invisibility by other factors. Such factors include contextual effects (e.g. school effects and the transition from primary to secondary school), the effects of instruction-type and intensity of instruction, effects of extracurricular exposure, the influence of literacy and biliteracy skills, and the impact of socio-affective variables such as motivation. A role for starting age is in fact extremely hard to establish. With regard to the school situation, in other words, we can blithely put aside the maturational question, and all agree that when instruction happens is incomparably less important than how it proceeds and under what circumstances.

Actually such findings regarding the effects of early instruction go back a long way. Thus the idea of introducing L2 instruction into primary/elementary schools in the 1950s and 1960s was dealt a severe blow by the findings of research in the 1970s which cast doubt on the capacity of early instruction to deliver higher proficiency levels as compared with later instruction (e.g. Burstall, Jamieson, Cohen, & Hargreaves, 1975; Carroll, 1975; Oller & Nagato, 1974). The disillusionment occasioned by such findings seems, however, to have been rather short-lived, and more recent and continuing negative results in this connection have also been largely ignored. Our own endeavour has been (1) to try to convince the members of the general public that the time is ripe for closer integration between SLA research and L2 pedagogy and (2) to educate them about recent trends in the age factor tradition in SLA research. Our strong view is that consistent and intensive collaboration between practitioners, politicians and researchers is needed in order to understand and address mutual interests and concerns through shared discussions, data collection, analysis and interpretation.

For more information about this book, please see our website. If you liked this, you might also be interested in Key Topics in Second Language Acquisition by Vivian Cook and David Singleton and Future Research Directions for Applied Linguistics edited by Simone E. Pfenninger and Judit Navracsics.


Willingness to Communicate in Instructed Second Language Acquisition

28 February 2017

This month we published Willingness to Communicate in Instructed Second Language Acquisition by Anna Mystkowska-Wiertelak and Mirosław Pawlak. In this post the authors tell us what inspired them to write the book and explain the process involved in their research.

Willingness to Communicate in Instructed Second Language AcquisitionThe main inspiration for writing the book was the conviction that learners’ willingness to speak in the foreign language classroom has to be investigated from both a macro- and micro-perspective. The first task was relatively easy because a number of tools were available. While there were hurdles in obtaining the right amount of data, all it took was to put together the requisite scales, introduce the modifications we deemed necessary, and apply required statistical procedures. The second task was much more challenging because it is not easy to register changes in readiness to communicate in real time.

It was clear to us from the very outset that we wanted to focus on changes in students’ willingness to communicate as they occur in regularly scheduled classes and to identify factors responsible for such changes. Such an approach was intended to capture classroom reality and make the findings relevant to everyday concerns of practitioners. It meant that we could not rely on sophisticated software that allows tapping into changes in willingness to speak on a second-by-second basis in the performance of specific tasks because this would have entailed pulling individual students out of intact groups.

Thus we decided to use a grid on which participants indicated their willingness to speak on a scale from -10 (total unwillingness) to +10 (total willingness) at five-minute intervals. The data from these grids, augmented by information gleaned from detailed lesson plans and questionnaires the students filled out at the end of each class, helped us establish changes in readiness to speak at both the class and individual levels and to establish reasons for these fluctuations.

Although this procedure is not free from shortcomings, one of which is some degree of intrusiveness in the tasks performed, it is difficult to think of a better way to tap the dynamic nature of readiness to speak. There is also a possibility of getting a much finer-grained view of such changes if students indicate their willingness to speak at shorter time-intervals (e.g., every 10 seconds). Clearly, there is a need to further refine this procedure but it is difficult to offer alternatives for the investigation of the dynamic nature of willingness to communicate in the classroom.

Willingness to Communicate in the Chinese EFL University ClassroomFor more information about this book, please visit our website. If you found this interesting, you might also like Willingness to Communicate in the Chinese EFL University Classroom by Jian-E Peng.


Crosslinguistic Influence in Multilinguals

20 December 2016

Earlier this month we published Wai Lan Tsang’s book Crosslinguistic Influence in Multilinguals which studies Cantonese, English and French multilinguals in Hong Kong. In this post, Wai Lan tells us how her own experience as a multilingual learner inspired further examination of the influence of other languages on the language being learned. 

The fact is that if you have not developed language,
you simply don’t have access to most of human experience,
and if you don’t have access to experience,
then you’re not going to be able to think properly.
Noam Chomsky

Chomsky’s quote tells us how important human language is in formulating our experience and thoughts. But what happens when we know more than one kind of human language? How do we think these different human languages influence or interact with each other?

Born into a cosmopolitan city like Hong Kong, I have the privilege of being exposed to different languages. As a native speaker of Cantonese (a variety of Standard Chinese), I have acquired English, French and Japanese. During the acquisitional process, I have become more and more aware of how the languages I know might influence each other – as expected or to my surprise. For example, once in a Japanese course I was taking, my French was activated quite a number of times when I was trying to figure out the pronunciation of some Japanese words. It was a surprise to me because those moments of activation came unconsciously, and I would expect languages similar to Japanese, for example Chinese, to be activated, but it was not. This kind of amazing experience has inspired me to explore more about how different languages in a multilingual’s mind may interact with each other.

Crosslinguistic Influence in MultilingualsThis book on crosslinguistic influence among three languages, namely Cantonese, English and French, in multilinguals, draws on the notions of ‘interface’ and ‘reverse transfer’ in second language acquisition. In particular, it addresses the possible positive or negative transfer effect from French as a third language (L3) to English as a second language (L2):

Does the acquisition of a later acquired language (i.e. French) have any effect on the reception and production of an earlier acquired language (i.e. English)?

The answer to the above query is not an unequivocal ‘yes’ or ‘no’, possibly because of a number of factors at play: L3 proficiency, linguistic feature or structure involved (which in turn relates to the notion of ‘structural linguistic complexity’), typology/ psychotypology and receptive and productive use of L2. These factors may in turn make the acquisitional process most intriguing.

In order to relish and excel in this fascinating acquisitional process, both language learners and language educators are encouraged to become more aware of the different factors and the resulting potential interaction among languages. The book will show them how those factors might have worked among a group of speakers of Cantonese with knowledge of English and French. The discussions in the book will also highlight other issues that are worth investigating in our quest for how crosslinguistic influence among three languages may take place.

Hope you all enjoy reading it and find it useful!

Crosslinguistic Influence in Second Language AcquisitionFor more information about the book, please see our website. If you found this interesting you might also like Crosslinguistic Influence in Second Language Acquisition edited by Rosa Alonso Alonso.


L2 Learning, Teaching and Assessment

13 September 2016

This month we are publishing L2 Learning, Teaching and Assessment by Nihat Polat which explores second language learning, teaching and assessment from a comprehensible input (CI) perspective. In this blog post, Nihat writes about what inspired him to put the book together.

L2 Learning, Teaching and AssessmentGrowing up in the bilingual context of eastern Turkey, I struggled with understanding and communicating messages with different audiences on a daily basis. Some of these difficulties could be attributed to not knowing the vocabulary or the grammatical structures, which is not surprising for any bilingual person. Yet, often I knew the words and/or the grammar but I still had difficulty understanding what my Turkish or Kurdish family members or my friends or teachers were trying to tell me. For me, this was quite interesting. I became even more interested in ‘what it means to understand a particular linguistic sample’ or ‘know a foreign language’ while I was learning English at high school. However, my interest in technical aspects of ‘comprehension’, ‘comprehensibility’, and ‘input’ in second language (L2) learning, teaching and assessment peaked when I met Stephen Krashen at a conference in graduate school. Being on the conference organizing committee gave me additional ‘opportunities of exposure’ to Professor Krashen. As a big fan, I got to ask him a lot of questions to which he kindly offered detailed answers, often with a wonderful sense of humor.

In the process of doing research on different aspects of second language acquisition (SLA) and teaching graduate courses on SLA and L2 teaching and assessment it became clearer and clearer to me that the term ‘comprehensible input’ (CI) is used rather loosely in the field. Thus, I decided that a need is warranted (1) to define the term in light of current SLA research, and (2) explore SLA and L2 teaching and assessment from the perspective of CI. Taking a compressive blended approach that champions the intertwining of theory (Part I) and research (Part II) with L2 pedagogy and assessment (Part III), I particularly focused on the following questions:

  • What is the conceptual foundation of CI?
  • What are CI’s linguistic, cultural, semiotic and stylistic elements?
  • What are CI’s multimodal and dynamic interpretations in the subfields of psychology, anthropology and linguistics?
  • How is CI used/discussed in different SLA theories and research?
  • As far as its role in L2 teaching is concerned, what role do multimodal forms of CI play in different discourse and interaction patterns in different teaching settings around the world?
  • What factors (e.g. curriculum, learner, teacher, setting-related) do the classroom teachers need to consider in modifying CI for pedagogical purposes in different settings?
  • What role does CI play in terms of assessment modifications in different kinds of test techniques for receptive and productive skills?

In short, I hope this book helps students, teachers and researchers in the field to have a better understanding of L2 learning, teaching and assessment from the perspective of CI. I would like to conclude with this caveat that I highlighted in the Conclusion section: “If the ultimate goal of L2A is ‘authentically languaging one’s L2 self’, offering straightforward remedies as to how it happens would be no less unwise than trying to take a still picture of a constantly self-organizing dynamic system with countless elements.”

For more information about this book, please see our website.


Working Memory – The Ultimate Second Language Learning Device!

16 June 2016

Last week we celebrated the arrival of the 100th volume in our Second Language Acquisition series. This new book, Working Memory and Second Language Learning written by Zhisheng (Edward) Wen is the second volume of his in the same series. Last year we published Edward’s co-edited volume with Mailce Mota and Arthur McNeill on the  same topic (Working Memory in Second Language Acquisition and Processing). In this post, Edward shares with us his decade-long passion and unceasing enthusiasm for the Working memory – Second Language Acquisition (WM-SLA) concept. 

9781783095711When I was finally able to touch and feel with my very own fingers the first copy of my book that I had just received (hot off the press) from Multilingual Matters, I simply just could not let go of it from my hands. This little purple book, thin and light as it may feel, had occupied such a great proportion of my life over the past 10 years. It has virtually dominated much of my thinking and writing (and countless re-writings), relentlessly forcing me into this weird habit of tracking and consuming an enormous amount of literature from multiple disciplines straddling applied linguistics, educational psychology, cognitive science, and even neuroscience (as long as this buzzword of ‘working memory’ appears in their keyword list). I have since posted this extended list of over 100 pages of references on my personal academic website for interested readers to download freely (and I promise to keep updating it frequently to include whatever new entries I come across on my way).

This latest book is actually my second in Multilingual Matters’ Second Language Acquisition series. My previous one, that I co-edited with Mailce Borges Mota and Arthur McNeill, Working Memory in Second Language Acquisition and Processing was published in May last year. In essence, the edited volume featured theoretical and empirical chapters contributed by leading scholars in both working memory (e.g. Alan Baddeley, Nelson Cowan, and Randall Engle etc.) and second language acquisition (e.g. Alan Juffs, Peter Skehan, John Williams etc.), whereas this new book represents my own personal understanding and theoretical account of the pivotal role of working memory in first and second language learning and processing.

9781783093571Given the different formats and genres of these two books, readers are encouraged to read both of them together, as they are actually meant to be complementary rather than competing with each other. Details of how to order the books at a discount price can be found at the bottom of the post. Overall, these two books should present a more comprehensive and in-depth account of the intricate relationships between working memory and second language acquisition, processing and development. That said, I will now just focus on my second book in this post and highlight its major themes and key features. (For those who also wish to read my blog post written for the co-edited volume, you can find it here).

Getting down to business then, this new book is divided into three parts. The first two parts are devoted to the extensive literature reviews of both working memory research in cognitive science (addressing such fundamental issues as working memory theories, models, and measurement) and applied linguistics research (synthesizing second language studies exploring working memory effects). Building on these cumulative research findings and emerging insights, the third part of the book proposes an integrated perspective on theorizing and measuring working memory in SLA, which culminates in the formulation of the Phonological/Executive (P/E) model. As such, the P/E model is inspired by three major sources based on research syntheses of multiple lines of inquiry.

To begin with, an extensive literature review in cognitive science gives rise to unified theories of the working memory concept as a precursor to the P/E model of WM and SLA proposed in the book. Namely, working memory is a memory sub-system that (a) has limited capacity in holding information and duration; (b) has multiple components and multiple cognitive mechanisms and functions embedded within each component; (c) acts as the interface/gateway for information flow between short-term memory and long-term memory.

Then, there is also the second line of research lending support to the P/E model, which concerns the substantial literature of studies conducted by cognitive psychologists and psycholinguists (from both sides of the Atlantic) that have explored the implications of working memory components/functions for first language acquisition. This research synthesis gives rise to the identification of two key working memory components (together with their associated mechanisms) found to be most directly relevant for language acquisition, i.e., phonological working memory (PWM) and executive working memory (EWM) that are related to various learning domains and processes in first language acquisition and processing.

Finally, as the two key working memory components (PWM and EWM) have been pinned down, together with their associated mechanisms and functions, what we need (and lack) is an effective framework to integrate these established working memory theories with SLA theories. Before such integration can take place, however, it is important to first identify what similarities and differences may exist between first language acquisition and SLA. Building on this premise, I propose in the book to re-conceptualise SLA in more specific terms of representation (e.g., vocabulary, grammar), skills (e.g., L2 sub-skills learning, processing and performance) and development (e.g., L2 proficiency growth), so that each of these domains/skills can be examined through the new lens of these two working memory components (PWM and EWM) in light of their potential mechanisms and functions.

As can be expected, the final outcome of this step-by-step procedure culminates in a general conceptual framework of WM and SLA, and from it, the Phonological/Executive (P/E) model naturally emerges and gradually takes shape. More specifically, PWM is posited to underpin those chunking-based acquisitional and developmental aspects of SLA domains (such as vocabulary/lexis, formulaic sequences and morpho-syntactic constructions/grammatical structure). Informed by these theoretical links, it is better to interpret PWM as the second language acquisition device.

On the other hand, EWM is postulated to underpin some selective offline processes in L2 sub-skills learning and processing, as well as some real-time performance areas during L2 comprehension (listening and reading), interaction (e.g., noticing, focus on form etc.) and production (and here translation/interpreting can also be included as a special case of combining L1 comprehension and L2 production). Given these theoretical links, EWM is best interpreted as a second language processing device or simply, a second language processor.

By now, I do hope that I have given readers a glimpse into the many ideas discussed in my latest book. Other ideas that I have explored in more detail in the book include the relationship between working memory and foreign language aptitude as well as their configured positions in L2 development. There is also an in-depth discussion of the implications of the P/E model for L2 task-based planning and performance. To sum up, I have a strong conviction and equally strong evidence to support my personal understanding and positioning of working memory in second language acquisition and processing. And that is, I consider working memory, as shown in the title of this blog post, to be the ultimate second language learning device! In other words, without working memory, simply nothing can ever happen in SLA!

Zhisheng (Edward) Wen, Macao Polytechnic Institute, edwardwen@ipm.edu.mo
Edward’s website

If you would like more information about Edward’s research monograph and his co-edited book, please see our website or his personal homepage or just contact him directly at the email address above. 

To buy both books at 50% discount please use the code PREORDER50 at the checkout on our website. This discount is available until the end of September.


The Quest for Authenticity in Japan

1 June 2016

This week we are publishing Richard S. Pinner’s new book Reconceptualising Authenticity for English as a Global Language which examines the idea of authenticity in English language learning. In this blog post, Richard  explains how his quest for authenticity developed.

Reconceptualising Authenticity for English as a Global LanguageWhen I came to Japan, I had no idea that I was beginning a quest for authenticity. Before moving to Japan, I worked in London. If I wanted to give my students an authentic experience of the English language in use, I just had to ask them to look out of the window. Their lives were inherently entwined with meaningful interactions in English, because they were living in an English-speaking environment. Authenticity seemed to be part of the package.

However, when I moved to Japan I realised that things are not so straightforward for the majority of English learners around the world. Creating meaningful and relevant experiences of using English became my number one challenge. I also became much more aware of the ‘soft power’ effect my cultural upbringing was now having on my students, as I selected materials which presented certain worldviews and ideologies. Things I had not previously considered became problematic issues. In London I represented the local; the one with insider knowledge, links and cultural connections. Working in Japan I was now an outsider, and I had to adapt myself just as much as the materials I was planning to use for my lessons.

My research into authenticity grew out of my research into motivation, and hence I approach the subject from a complexity theory perspective. What this means is that I now try to avoid over-simplifying or compartmentalising things, and I try to make my teaching about contextualised experiences rather than about materials. In order to do this, I have to focus on the individuals in my class and help them to find their own authentic voice in English. I also have to find a way of helping these individuals to bridge their way into a social community of English users.

Japanese learners are often written about in terms of motivation (or lack thereof) and there are many workshops held at conferences in Japan which address issues such as ‘silence’ in the classroom. The stereotype is that it can be hard to encourage Japanese learners to speak as themselves. In my own experience, I think this is an issue related to authenticity, and overcoming such obstacles is as much about the teacher changing their perspective as the students learning new skills. In the book, I try to explain the global situation of English language education as it relates to the construct of authenticity, while providing relevant examples from my own experience as a language teacher. I hope that anyone who reads it will find it interesting and empowering, because authenticity is a central component to successful second language acquisition.

Authenticity, Language and Interaction in Second Language ContextsFor further information about this book, please see our website. You might also enjoy another recent title Authenticity, Language and Interaction in Second Language Contexts edited by Rémi A. van Compernolle and Janice McGregor.


What is CLI and why is it so interesting to researchers?

7 January 2016

This month we are publishing Rosa Alonso Alonso’s new book Crosslinguistic Influence in Second Language Acquisition which is a collection of chapters written by key scholars researching in the field. In this post, Rosa introduces her book and tells us a bit more about crosslinguistic influence (CLI).

Crosslinguistic Influence in Second Language AcquisitionInterest in the influence of one language on another goes back a long time, with a variety of motives – historical, psychological, social, and pedagogical – figuring in diverse research traditions. The eleven chapters of this volume offer, it is hoped, an unprecedented look at the phenomenon of crosslinguistic influence from a cognitivist perspective by leading scholars in the field, including pioneer researchers such as Terence Odlin and Håkan Ringbom and current scholars such as Scott Jarvis or ZhaoHong Han.

This collection offers viewpoints that, although distinct, overlap. The book also addresses crosslinguistic influence involving vocabulary in some analyses (e.g. Chapters 2, 3, 5, and 10), while other studies consider morphosyntactic categories (Chapters 4 and 9), semantic structures (Chapters 6, 7, and 8), and phonetic and phonological structures (Chapters 1 and 2). Of course, some boundaries between morphosyntactic and semantic transfer can be elusive, as in the discussion of crosslinguistic influence involving prepositions (Chapter 6) and of articles (Chapter 8), and not surprisingly, these analyses have possible implications for the study of cognitivist problems such as linguistic relativity. Readers will find some perennial themes of cognitive linguistics in the volume, such as the notion of construal (e.g. Chapters 6, 7, and 8) and the notion of activation (Chapters 1, 2, and 5). Another issue of concern, linguistic relativity, has grown more prominent in cognitive linguistics in general and is likewise the focus for a number of studies here (Chapters 4, 6, and 9). Other cognitivist topics appear in other chapters, including the possible contributions of neurolinguistics (Chapters 3 and 5), the problem of cognitive development (Chapter 10), and the role of frequency of structures in acquisition (Chapter 7). While every chapter discusses some empirical work, Chapters 6-10 present new empirical investigations.

The relevance of crosslinguistic influence research for teaching comes in for discussion in a number of chapters (e.g. 1 and 5), as does the phenomenon of multilingualism. Moreover, many languages figure in the theoretical discussions and empirical work, including Chinese, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Hindi, Japanese, Malay, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Russian, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, Tagalog, Thai, Turkish and Ukrainian. The book ends with the thoughtful critique by Janusz Arabski and Adam Wojtaszek in the final chapter of the volume.

The variety of approaches taken in the different chapters provides the reader with the most revealing studies on CLI. The volume as a whole is intended to provide novel insights about both theoretical and empirical issues in CLI, and can serve as a reference for SLA researchers, as a text book and might also prove interesting to the general reader in the field of language acquisition.

New Perspectives on Transfer in Second Language LearningYou can find more information about Rosa’s book on our website. If you found this interesting you might also like New Perspectives on Transfer in Second Language Learning edited by Liming Yu and Terence Odlin.


Adult Learning in the Language Classroom

18 September 2015

Adult Learning in the Language Classroom

This month we are publishing Adult Learning in the Language Classroom by Stacey Margarita Johnson. Here, Stacey explains why there is such a need for her book amongst language instructors.

This past week, a fifth year grad student and I were talking about his interest in second language acquisition (SLA), and I mentioned that, in the spring, I will be teaching a course on theory and research in SLA, a course he will be unable to take as he works on his dissertation. Even as he was preparing for a faculty role in languages and teaching several elementary Spanish courses every year, this student had not found opportunities to pursue further study of effective classroom practices. I have frequently had similar conversations with faculty and grad students at various colleges and universities. Language instructors sincerely want to base their classroom practice on theory, research, and proven practices, but lack time and resources for discovering and implementing those ideas in their classrooms.

I, therefore, hope my book Adult Learning in the Language Classroom can be a practical and accessible resource for instructors in such a position. It explores several themes and also:

  • reports the results of a case study conducted in a first-semester Spanish classroom at a community college;
  • explores how several key adult learning theories intersect with current topics in second language acquisition to inform language teaching;
  • argues that, even in cases when students do not continue their language study beyond the first year, beginning foreign language courses at the college level can promote essential learning outcomes when instruction is consistent with best practices in adult education;
  • recommends classroom practices drawn from the results of my research that contribute to deep learning in the adult language classroom;
  • explores the value of a beginner’s language course for adults from both a program and classroom perspective.

In particular, instructors interested in critical pedagogy and social justice themes will be interested in reading about the classroom I studied. The instructor in this classroom was interested in disrupting her students’ preconceived ideas about the world and was quite successful in promoting intercultural competence in her classroom. In my analysis, I emphasize that language instruction should be about learning to communicate complex ideas in a diverse world. Teaching for diversity development and transformation is possible when students engage intellectually and make meaningful, authentic contact with another language and culture.

Adult learning through language study means a lot to me personally in addition to being a theme in my research. If you read my book and want to add your perspective, I would love to hear from you by email (stacey.m.johnson@vanderbilt.edu) or on Twitter (@staceymargarita).

If you would like more information about this book please see our website or contact Stacey as outlined above.


Cultural Migrants and Optimal Language Acquisition

19 August 2015

This month we published Cultural Migrants and Optimal Language Acquisition edited by Fanny Forsberg Lundell and Inge Bartning. Here, Fanny and Inge discuss the relationship between language learning and culture.

Cultural Migrants and Optimal Language AcquisitionHow well can you actually learn a second language if you start later on in life? As linguists interested in second language acquisition, this is an obvious question. Recent years have seen a growing body of research within the fields of nativelikeness and ultimate attainment, often evolving around the famous Critical Period Hypothesis. According to this hypothesis (depending on the individual researcher’s interpretation), it is impossible to acquire a second language at the level of a native speaker after puberty. More than a hundred studies have tried to confirm or reject this hypothesis and the current state-of-the art, to simplify things, is quite unanimous: yes, for some subtleties of linguistic competence, such as phonetic and grammatical intuition there seems to be a major obstacle for many individuals when acquisition starts after puberty. However, there is much more to language than some detailed aspects that have generally been the object of critical period inquiry, which do not necessarily have an impact on everyday communicative competence.

What is more, there are also other populations of second language learners than those which have traditionally been included in studies on nativelikeness. For quite some time, we have followed a group of Swedish long-term residents in Paris, France. We were amazed by how well many of them had learnt French, although they were late starters. In a study published last year, Forsberg Lundell et al. (2014), 30% of them passed as native speakers in a native speaker evaluation test, which is a high figure compared to earlier studies. The socio-psychological advantage of these learners was striking: most of them were self-declared francophiles, with good experiences of integration, both on a professional and personal level. Could we find a more optimal setting for language learning? If we want to investigate the potential of adult second language learning, these are the speakers we should go after.

Luckily, we are not the only ones interested in the link between second language learning and cultural motivation. Colleagues from Sweden, Ireland, the UK, France and Spain have contributed to this volume and illustrate the relevance of studying the link between migration experience and language. It is our belief that the book presents a number of studies which convincingly argue for a tight link between second language attainment and culture.

Our hope is that our book will open up for new exciting research projects where migration experience is considered to a much larger extent in studies on adult second language acquisition. Furthermore, it would also be desirable if social scientists, studying migration and integration, would accord a more pivotal place to the role played by language, a key aspect of human culture and cognition.

9781847699893For more information about this title please see our website. If you found this interesting you might also enjoy Linguistic and Cultural Acquisition in a Migrant Community edited by David Singleton et al.


Teaching Languages Online: Between the Covers

1 July 2015

This month we are publishing a new, revised edition of Carla Meskill and Natasha Anthony’s textbook Teaching Languages Online. In this post, the authors tell us how the book has evolved since the first edition. 

We hear a lot from online teachers and students about the liberating aspect of anytime and anywhere instruction, especially the teaching and learning that happens right before you drift off to sleep and/or when you first wake in the morning. Having your courses literally ‘at hand’ while horizontal between the covers means being infinitely more relaxed than you would be in a live classroom. This is an aspect of language learning that is often cited as additive to second language acquisition processes. For teaching also, a relaxed state can be productive for thinking and perspective-taking regarding your classes. In short, teaching and learning between the covers can be viewed as both pleasurable and productive.

The new edition of our book, Teaching Languages Online, acknowledges what we like to call this ‘between the covers’ advantage of 100% mobility. In keeping with this view, the text’s instructional models, activities and methods are consistently situated in the contemporary mobile lives of teachers and students.

Untitled-1Have a look at the cover of our first edition where students sit in front of desktops.

Compare this to the cover of our new edition and you will observe this shift in orientation. And, throughout these revised and updated chapters you will see that while mobility brings liberation, it is not without related teaching responsibilities regarding student focus, attention, and accountability, each of which is strategically attended to throughout.

In this new edition, you will also experience forms of teaching and learning commensurate with 3D immersive environments that, like mobility, bring their own special edge and flavor to instructional conversations.

Whether it’s between the covers or on the run, our aim is that the foundations, skills and strategies presented in our updated book will not only shape you into an excellent online practitioner, but also bring you the pleasure and satisfaction of professionalism in the online world of language education.

For more information about the book please see our website and to order an inspection/desk copy for the course you are teaching please fill in the form here.


%d bloggers like this: